Novices vs. Experts: A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words

I found the synopsis provided here very illustrative of the value of metacognition. It is most challenging to see the beam in our own eye. It does take an effort. However, the effort is to be taken for those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

Marianna Ridley

In e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, authors Clark and Mayer state that novices and experts differ in their approach to solving problems.  Novices pick a path and stick to it regardless of how productive it is.The thinking processes of experts move “iteratively among planning, implementing and evaluating problem-solving actions” (p. 258).
The following figure (Schoenfeld, 1992, p. 62) shows the thinking pattern of a novice when problem-solving.
Novice
This figure (Schoenfeld, 1992, p. 61) shows the thinking pattern of an expert.
Expert
Note: “Each of the small inverted triangles … represents an explicit comment on the state of his problem solution, for example ”Hmm. I don’t know exactly where to start here’ (followed by two minutes of analyzing the problem) or ‘OK. All I need to be able to do is [a particular technique] and I’m done’ (followed by the straightforward implementation of his problem solution)” (Schoenfeld, 1992, p. 62).

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